Sunday, 10 July 2011

PRESENT SIMPLE

El Presente Simple es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para describir acciones habituales que suceden con cierta frecuencia y no hace referencia a si está ocurriendo en el momento actual.

I play tennis. Yo juego al tenis.
(Hace mención de un deporte que realizo normalmente y que no necesariamente lo estoy jugando en este momento).

He works at an office. Él trabaja en una oficina.
(Se refiere al trabajo que desarrolla una persona normalmente).

They normally travel to Madrid. Ellos viajan a Madrid.
(Habla de un viaje que se repite normalmente).

A continuación se muestran las formas afirmativa, interrogativa y negativa de este tiempo verbal:

En el cuadro superior se ha tomado como ejemplo el verbo PLAY (jugar). Observe que en el modo afirmativo, en la 3º persona del singular, se le añade una "S" al verbo.

He eats vegetables. Él come vegetales.
Alice dances at the theatre. Alice baila en el teatro.
The dog breaks the fence. El perro rompe la valla.

En el modo interrogativo y negativo se utiliza el auxiliar DO, aunque en la 3º persona del singular se coloca como auxiliar DOES y se le quita la "S" al verbo.

Existen algunos casos particulares como por ejemplo, si el verbo empleado termina en "SS", "SH", "CH", "O" y "X" al formar la 3º persona del singular en la forma afirmativa se le agrega "ES". Aquí vemos algunos ejemplos:

Si el verbo es FISH (pescar), se conjugará: He fishes at the lake. Él pesca en el lago.
Si el verbo es KISS (besar), se conjugará: She kisses her boyfriend. Ella besa a su novio.
Si el verbo es WATCH (observar), se conjugará: He watches the mountain. Él observa la montaña.
Si el verbo es FIX (arreglar), se conjugará: He fixes his car. Él arregla su coche.
Si el verbo es GO (ir), se conjugará: She goes to the office. Ella va a la oficina.

Otra excepción se presenta si el verbo termina en "Y" tras consonante. Para formar la 3º persona del singular se sustituye esta "Y" por una "i" acompañada de la terminación "ES". Por ejemplo:

Si el verbo es STUDY (estudiar) se conjugará: She studies the lesson. Ella estudia la lección.

Para la forma negativa se puede emplear la forma contraída de DON'T en lugar de DO NOT o DOESN'T en vez de DOES NOT.

I don't play tennis. Yo no juego al tenis.
He doesn't work at an office. Él no trabaja en una oficina.
They don't travel to Madrid. Ellos no viajan a Madrid.

Thursday, 7 July 2011

THE PLURAL OF NOUNS IN ENGLISH

En inglés existen varias maneras de formar el plural de los sustantivos en función de cómo terminen. Algunos de ellos los veremos a continuación:

Muchos de los sustantivos forman el plural agregando la letra S al singular, por ejemplo:



book

libro

books

libros

table

mesa

tables

mesas

door

puerta

doors

puertas

cup

taza

cups

tazas

chair

silla

chairs

sillas

Los sustantivos que terminan en: S, SS, SH, CH, X y Z añaden la sílaba ES para obtener su plural, por ejemplo:



church

iglesia

churches

iglesias

buzz

zumbido

buzzes

zumbidos

class

clase

classes

clases

wish

deseo

wishes

deseos

box

caja

boxes

cajas

bus

autobus

buses

autobuses

También aquellos sustantivos que terminan con la letra O, incorporan la sílaba ES:



hero

héroe

heroes

héroes

potato

patatas

potatoes

patatas

tomato

tomate

tomatoes

tomates

Otro caso es el de aquellos sustantivos que terminan con una vocal seguida de la letra Y, y en este caso adoptan la S para su plural, por ejemplo:



key

llave

keys

llaves

boy

niño

boys

niños

monkey

mono

monkeys

monos

toy

juguete

toys

juguetes

Si finalizan en consonante seguida de la letra Y, construirán el plural añadiendo la terminación IES como vemos en los siguientes ejemplos:



cherry

cereza

cherries

cerezas

party

fiesta

parties

fiestas

allergy

alergia

allergies

alergias

baby

bebé

babies

bebés

Algunos sustantivos que terminan en la letra F o la sílaba FE solamente incorporan la letra S para su plural:


giraffe

jirafa

giraffes

jirafas

cliff

risco

cliffs

riscos

chief

jefe

chiefs

jefes

roof

techo

roofs

techos

Sin embargo, existen otros sustantivos que también terminan en F y que para pluralizarlos se debe cambiar la letra mencionada por la sílaba VES:



knife

cuchillo

knives

cuchillos

shelf

estantes

shelves

estantes

thief

ladrón

thieves

ladrones

scarf

bufanda

scarves

bufandas

wife

esposa

wives

esposas

También están los llamados sustantivos irregulares, que para formar su plural cambian algunas vocales, tal es el caso de:



man

hombre

men

hombres

woman

mujer

women

mujeres

mouse

ratón

mice

ratones

tooth

diente

teeth

dientes

ox

buey

oxen

bueyes

THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE

Adjetivos Demostrativos - THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE



Los adjetivos demostrativos son aquellos que se utilizan para determinar la ubicación de las cosas y son los siguientes:

A diferencia del idioma español, en el que se determina la proximidad con ESTO, ESO y AQUELLO, en el idioma inglés sólo se utilizan dos grados de proximidad: THIS, para señalar lo que se encuentra más cerca del sujeto, y THAT para lo que está más alejado.

Estos adjetivos concuerdan en número, ya sea en singular o en plural, con el sustantivo al que acompañan, mientras que en género no existen diferencias entre masculino y femenino:

This flower is beautiful. Esta flor es hermosa.
This car is dirty. Este automóvil está sucio.

That house is expensive. Aquella casa es cara.
That dog is bad. Aquel perro es malo.

These apples are cheap. Estas manzanas son baratas.
These pencils are in the box. Estos lápices están en la caja.

Those stars are in the sky. Aquellas estrellas están en el cielo.
Those boys are my friends. Aquellos niños son mis amigos.

El adjetivo demostrativo THIS también puede utilizarse para presentar a alguien:

John, this is Mike. (John, éste es Mike).

También se utiliza THIS para comenzar un relato de manera coloquial:

This is the story... (Esta es la historia...)

THAT sirve para indicar algo que ha ocurrido o algo que alguien ha dicho.

That was an incredible story! (Vaya una historia increible!).

THE ARTICLE "A/AN"

Artículo Indeterminado - A, AN



El artículo indeterminado o indefinido en el idioma inglés se conoce como A y AN, y su significado puede traducirse como UN y UNA.
A dog. Un perro.
An elephant. Un elefante.
A house. Una casa.
An apple. Una manzana.

Ambos artículos significan lo mismo y son invariables en género y número, ya que se utiliza tanto para el masculino como para el femenino y carece de plural.

A: se utiliza delante de palabras que comienzan con consonante:

A car. Un automóvil.
A table. Una mesa.

AN: se utiliza delante de palabras que comienzan con vocal:

An elephant. Un elefante.
An apple. Una manzana.

Ahora veremos algunos de los usos que tiene el artículo indeterminado o indefinido dentro de la lengua inglesa, aunque cabe destacar que se utiliza para las mismas funciones que en el castellano:
  • Se usa A y AN para designar a personas y objetos cualquiera:
An umbrella. Un paraguas.
A
book. Un libro.
A
woman. Una mujer.
  • Se usa A y AN delante de profesiones (difiere del español en que la profesión no necesita preceder de un o una) :
He is a lawyer. Él es (un) abogado.
I am a doctor. Yo soy (un)doctor.
She is an engineer. Ella es (un) ingeniero.
  • Se usa para designar a un grupo de personas, animales o cosas de la misma clase:
A cat is a quiet pet. Un gato es un animal tranquilo.
(Se refiere a los gatos en general habitualmente)
  • También se utiliza delante de expresiones que indican una cantidad determinada de objetos o personas:
A lot of people. Una gran cantidad de gente.
A dozen of apples. Una docena de manzanas.
 

THE ARTICLE "THE"

Artículo Determinado THE


En el idioma inglés, el artículo definido THE es el equivalente en castellano a los siguientes significados: EL, LOS, LA , LAS y son invariables en género y número:

The book. El libro.
The books. Los libros.

The table. La mesa.
The tables. Las mesas.

Ahora veremos sus principales usos:

1. En algunos casos con un sustantivo contable singular para designar una persona u objeto en concreto:
The lion is a dangerous animal. El león es un animal peligroso.
2. Se emplea antes de algunos sustantivos gentilicios, cuando se quiere significar "los habitantes de determinado país":

The English like going to the theatre. A los ingleses les gusta ir a teatro.
The Spanish are very polite. Los españoles son muy amables.

3. Generalmente se usa con el nombre de:
  • Ríos: The River Nile, The River Amazonas. (El río Nilo, El río Amazonas).
  • Océanos y Mares: The Pacific Ocean, The Mediterranean Sea. (El Océano Pacífico, El Mar Mediterráneo).
  • Canales: The Panama Canal, The Suez Canal. (El Canal de Panamá, El Canal de Suez).
  • Desiertos: The Sahara, The Gobi Desert. (El Desierto de Sahara, El Desierto de Gobi).
  • Grupos de Islas: The West Indies, The Canaries. (Las Indias Occidentales, Las Islas Canarias).
  • Hoteles y Cines: The Odeon Cinema, The Ritz Hotel. (El cine Odeón, El Hotel Ritz).
  • Museos: The Louvre Museum, The Prado Museum. (El Museo Louvre, El Museo del Prado)
  • Restaurants: The Hard Rock Café.
  • La mayoría de las regiones geográficas: The Far East. (El Lejano Oeste).
4. Con instrumentos musicales y bailes:
  • The piano. (El piano).
  • The guitar. (La guitarra).
  • The tango. (El tango).
Con títulos:
  • The President. (El Presidente).
  • The Queen. (La Reina).
  • The King. (El Rey).
Con adjetivos usados como sutantivos plurales:
  • The rich. (Los ricos).
  • The poor. (Los pobres).
Con referencias históricas y eventos:
  • The French Revolution. (La Revolución Francesa).
  • The First World War. (La Primera Guerra Mundial).
Con sustantivos que son únicos:
The Moon (La Luna) ;The Sun (El Sol); The World.

USING CONNECTORS IN OUR COMPOSITIONS

MAKING CONTRASTS
   Although1 (neutral)/Even though (more emphatic)/Though (less formal) he had a sprained ankle (or he had sprained his ankle/his ankle was sprained), he went out for a walk.
   In spite of/Despite having a sprained ankle/having sprained his ankle, he went out for a walk. In spite of/Despite2his sprained ankle, he went out for a walk. In spite of/Despite his ankle being sprained, he went out for a walk.
   He had a sprained ankle, but he went out for a walk.
   He had a sprained ankle/He had sprained his ankle/His ankle was sprained. However(neutral)/Nevertheless (formal)/Nonetheless3(formal)/All the same (less formal)/Yet (less formal)/Still (less formal)/Even so (less formal), he went out for a walk.
   He had a sprained ankle/He had sprained his ankle/His ankle was sprained. He went out for a walk, though (informal)/however/ nevertheless/all the same/nonetheless.


   However4hard/No matter how hard (more formal) you try, you will never be able to do it. Even though/Even if you try hard, you will never be able to do it. It does not matter how hard you try, you will never be able to do it. Although you try hard, you will never be able to do it.   

Much (adverb) as/though I loved him, I had to leave him. Although I loved him a lot, I had to leave him.   

Angry (adjective) as/though I was, I did not tell them anything. Although I was angry, I did not tell them anything.   

Some people who are not happy with what they possess firmly believe in the American dream, as it evokes the things they would like to have. Despite this, it is just a dream. Some people who are not happy with what they possess firmly believe in the American dream, as it evokes the things they would like to have. For all that, it is just a dream.


ADDING

   I don’t feel like dancing, and I’m also very exhausted. I don’t feel like dancing. Also, I’m very exhausted. I don’t feel like dancing. Besides5, I’m very exhausted. I don’t feel like dancing. In addition, I’m very exhausted. I don’t feel like dancing, and what’s more I’m very exhausted. (informal)   

She works at the bank around the corner. Besides, she does the household chores. In addition to working at the bank around the corner, she does the household chores.   

They not only fined him, but also withdrew his driving licence. They fined him and, on top of that, they withdrew his driving licence. In addition to being fined, his driving licence was withdrawn.   

We must bear in mind both the costs and the benefits (that) we can obtain from them. On the one hand, we must bear in mind the costs. On the other (hand), the benefits we can obtain from them. We must bear in mind the costs. On the other hand, the benefits we can obtain from them.
  
EXPRESSING THE RESULT OR CONSEQUENCE OF SOMETHING

As we know them through and through, they can’t deceive us. We know them through and through, so they can’t deceive us.   

Since the management of the company have been raising funds illegally during the last few years, they will be taken to court. The management of the company have been raising funds illegally during the last few years. Therefore/ Consequently/For this reason/ As a result/As a consequence/In consequence, they will be taken to court. The management of the company have been raising funds illegally during the last few years. They will therefore be taken to court. The management of the company have been raising funds illegally during the last few years. Thus (very formal)/ So (less formal)/Hence (very formal) they will be taken to court. The management of the company have been raising funds illegally during the last few years, with the result/ consequence that they will be taken to court.

   EXPRESSING THE CAUSE OR REASON OF SOMETHING

She loves pasta, so she cooks it very often. She cooks pasta very often, as/since/because/for (very formal) she loves it. As/Since/Because she loves pasta, she cooks it very often.   

She had an injured leg, so she could not walk properly. She couldn’t walk properly because of/on account of (formal)/ owing to7(formal) her injured leg. (But She couldn’t walk properly because she had an injured leg.)   

The cause of his illness was that he did not eat enough food. His illness was due to8malnutrition/lack of food.   

The chairwoman has not come today, so we will have to put the meeting off. Seeing (that/as9) the chairwoman has not come today, we will have to put the meeting off.   

If they hadn’t helped us, we wouldn’t have finished painting the house in time for the wedding day. We finished painting the house in time for the wedding day thanks to their help.   

We couldn’t contact you, so we left a message for you. The reason (why/that) we left a message for you was that we couldn’t contact you. We couldn’t contact you. This is (the reason) why we left a message for you.
   We couldn’t contact you, which is why we left a message for
   you.
   We left a message for you because we couldn’t contact you.
   They were very negligent, so they had to shut down.
   They had to shut down as a result of/through their negligence.
   They had to shut down because they were very negligent.

WAYS OF EXPRESSING AN OPINION

I think (that) the government should do something about inflation. In my opinion/To my mind/In my view/To me (informal)/To my way of thinking/As far as I am concerned/If you ask me (informal)/ From my point of view/From my viewpoint/As I see it/The way I see it, the government should do something about inflation. Personally/For my part, I think (that) the government should do something about inflation.   

I think (that) the unemployment rate has fallen. As far as I know/As far as I am aware/To (the best of) my knowledge/For all I know, the unemployment rate has fallen.

   REACHING CONCLUSIONS

If we consider everything, this business is profitable. Taking everything into account/consideration11, this business is profitable. Taking account of everything, this business is profitable. All in all, the business is profitable. Briefly/In brief/In conclusion/In short/(To put it) in a nutshell/Summarising/Summing up/To sum up, this business is profitable.   

You shouldn’t talk ill about your wife. You must bear in mind that she is your wife. You shouldn’t talk ill about your wife. After all, she’s your wife/She’s your wife(,) after all.

   ORGANISING THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS, FACTS AND SO FORTH

First (of all)/In the first place/Firstly,... In the second place/Second(ly),... In the third place/Third(ly),... Then/Next/After that,... Finally/Lastly/In the end/Last of all,... To begin with/To start with/For a start,... To end with/To finish with/To conclude with,...

   GIVING EXAMPLES

In this region, you can find cobras, vipers, etc.
 In this region, you can find cobras, vipers, and so on/forth12. In this region, you can find cobras, vipers, and so on and so forth. Some snakes in this region are poisonous. For example/ For instance13, cobras and vipers. Some snakes in this region are poisonous, such as/like
   (less formal) cobras and vipers. Some snakes in this region are poisonous. As a case in point, we can mention cobras and vipers/We can mention cobras and vipers, as a case in point. Some snakes in this region are poisonous. The cobra is a case in point/A case in point is the cobra.   

I like cakes, biscuits, sweets(,) and similar things. I like cakes, biscuits, sweets(,) and the like14. (informal)
   We will need, for example, a million pounds to carry out the project. We will need, (let us) say, a million pounds to carry out the project.



   GIVING EXCEPTIONS OR SAYING THAT SOMETHING IS OBVIOUS

Our trip was marvellous if we don’t take into account a couple of incidents. Apart from a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our trip was marvellous, apart from a couple of incidents/A couple of incidents apart, our trip was marvellous. Except for a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our trip was marvellous, except for a couple of incidents.   

You were the only person to arrive on time. Nobody but15/except you arrived on time.   

I do not think it necessary to say that you will have to bring your own forks and spoons. Needless to say, you will have to bring your own forks and spoons. It goes without saying that you will have to bring your own forks and spoons.   

We don’t have enough money to buy food; and as you can imagine, it is impossible for us to pay the rent. We don’t have enough money to buy food, let alone pay the rent.   

Last night’s hailstorm ruined our fruit crop. But this is not all, it also caused a lot of damage to the trees. Last’s night hailstorm ruined our fruit crop, to say nothing of/not to mention the damage caused to the trees.


      EXPLAINING SOMETHING IN OTHER WORDS

Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job. What we want to say is that those who have no experience should not apply for it. Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job. To put it another way, those who have no experience should not apply for it. Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job, that is16(to say)(,) those who have no experience should not apply for it.   

‘I’m afraid we’re going through a crisis at the moment.’ ‘In other words, you won’t lend me the money.’ (= I can infere from your words that you will not lend me the money.)   

Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. What I want to say is that I love him deeply. Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. I mean17, I love him deeply.


   GIVING A GENERAL OPINION AND EMPAHASIZING THE IMPORTANCE OF SOMETHING

Everybody came to my party and enjoyed themselves very much. If we consider everything in general terms, it was a great success. Everybody came to my party and enjoyed themselves very much. On the whole/By and large (informal)/Broadly speaking/Generally speaking/In general, it was a great success.   

My sister is very intelligent, but her best attribute is that she is a hard-working girl. My sister is very intelligent; but, above all (else)/first and foremost, she is a hard-working girl.

   GIVING MORE DETAILED INFORMATION ABOUT SOMETHING

The weather was bad. It rained all the time to be precise. The weather was bad. In (actual) fact/In point of fact/As a matter of fact/Actually (spoken), it rained all the time.   

She told me that he was a little bit retarded, which was not exactly true, as he was very retarded. She told me that he was a little bit retarded; but, in (actual) fact/in point of fact/as a matter of fact/ actually, he was very retarded.



   INTRODUCING A TOPIC

Something must be done about the drop in sales. In connection with the drop in sales, something must be done about it. As regards/Regarding/In regard to/With regard to/As for18/ the drop in sales, something must be done about it. As far as the drop in sales is concerned, something must be done about it.   

I have something to say about this. In this regard/In this connection/On this score/In this respect/ On this matter/On this subject/As regards this, etc., I have something to say.

____________________
1  Although, even though and though are followed by a subject
   plus a verb; in spite of and despite (more formal), by a
   noun, pronoun or gerund. In spite of the fact (or despite the fact) is used in the same way as although: In spite of/Despite the fact (that) he had a sprained ankle/he had sprained his ankle/his ankle was sprained, he went out for a walk. They may also come after the main clause: He went out for a walk, although he had a sprained ankle.
2  Notwithstanding is a very formal alternative to despite
   (preposition) or however (adverb):
     Notwithstanding the drop in sales, we should continue with the same policy/The drop in sales notwithstanding, we should continue with the same policy. He knew of the many dangers which were awaiting him, but he proceeded with the plan notwithstanding.
3 Nonetheless may also be written none the less.
4  However and no matter how are followed by and adjective or
   an adverb.
5 Moreover and furthermore are formal alternatives to besides.

7  These words are followed by a noun, pronoun or gerund.
8  Grammars sometimes say that due to should be used after the
   verb be; but, in practice, some people do not follow this
   rule: She hasn’t come today due to her bad cold.
9 As is colloquial.
11  Note the following:
     Taking into account/consideration that the business is profitable, we must invest in it. We have to take your travelling expenses into account/ consideration. We have to take into account/consideration your travelling expenses.
12  In spoken English, we sometimes use and/or whatever (else),
   and whatnot and and what have you instead of and so on/ forth: In this region, you can find cobras, vipers and whatever (else)/and whatnot/and what have you.
13  Eg (from Latin exempli gratia) is another alternative to
   give examples, but it normally occurs in written English:
   Some snakes in this region are poisonous; eg/e.g., cobras and vipers.
14  A less usual alternative: I like cakes, biscuits, sweets, and such like.
15 Observe as well:
They were spies, not ambassadors. They were not ambassadors, but (they were) spies.
16 Another alternative to that is (to say) is ie (from Latin id est), but it is chiefly found in written English: Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job, ie/i.e. those who have no experience should not apply for it.
17 This mainly occurs in a conversational style. If we add
‘to say’, we imply that we disapprove of it: You can’t do that. I mean to say, you are over fifty. (= This is
inappropriate for a man of your age.)
18 As to is possible instead of as for to refer to things:
As to/As for the in drop sales,... As for Peter, I must say he is a hard-working person.

Wednesday, 6 July 2011

QUESTIONS IV-"LIKE" IN QUESTIONS

'Like' in questions

'LIKE' can be used as a VERB for preference and as a PREPOSITION for description.

What does she like doing at the weekend? (VERB) = What does she enjoy doing?

What is she like? (PREPOSITION) = Describe her character (and maybe her appearance).

What does she look like? (PREPOSITION) = Describe her appearance ONLY.

NOTE! 'How is she?' REFERS ONLY TO HEALTH & WELL-BEING.

Eg. How is your mother? = Is your mother in good health?



What would you like to do next weekend? (VERB) = What do you want to do?

What is London like? (PREPOSITION) = Give me your general impressions of London.

What was the weather like? (PREPOSITION) = Describe the weather to me.

What was the food like? (PREPOSITION) = What did you think about the food?

What were the shops like in London? (PREPOSITION) = Tell me about the shops in London.

What did it look like? (PREPOSITION) = Give me a physical description of it.

QUESTIONS III- SUBJECT/OBJECT QUESTIONS

Subject Questions

Most questions ask for the object of a sentence.

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT

Lee Oswald shot President Kennedy.

Who did Lee Oswald shoot? ANSWER = OBJECT (President Kennedy).

With the question words WHO, WHAT & WHICH, if the answer is the SUBJECT, there is NO AUXILIARY 'DO, DOES, DID and the WORD ORDER IS THE SAME AS A STATEMENT.

Who shot President Kennedy? ANSWER = SUBJECT (Lee Oswald).

Here are some more examples of subject questions:

SUBJECT (+ VERB + OBJECT)

Who broke the window? Peter (broke the window)

Who discovered America? Columbus (discovered America)

Which actors starred in Casablanca? Humphrey Bogart & Lauren Bacall (starred in Casablanca).

Which switch operates this machine? The red switch (operates the machine).

What happened to you last night? Something terrible (happened to me last night).

In contrast, here are the object questions for the examples above:

What did Peter break?

Which continent did Columbus discover?

Which actors did Casablanca have in it?

What does this switch operate?

What did you do last night?

QUESTIONS II- "WH-"QUESTIONS (INFORMATION QUESTIONS)

'Wh' questions ask for specific information and start with a question word.
What Which When Where Whereabouts Why Whose How

The most common question structure is: Question word + Auxiliary Verb + Subject +Main Verb.

'Wh' questions usually have a FALLING INTONATION.

Tense

Verb
Answer
Present simple Whose is this? What do you do? I'm a teacher.
Present continuous Where are you going? To the bank.
Past simple When were you there? When did she do that? Last night.
Past continuous Who were playing? Flamengo & Vasco.
Pres. perf. simple Why haven't you done your homework? Because I didn't have time.
Pres. perf. continuous Which report have you been working on? The one you asked you asked me to.
Passive Whereabouts were they found? On the side of the mountain.
will / would Who will be there? How will they get here? By train.
Can / could How could you? What could it be? It might be a UFO.

'What' can be followed by a noun and is usually used when there is an unlimited number of possibilities. 'Which' is normally used with a limited number of choices.

Eg. What size do you need? Which one do you like the most?

When asking about people it is better to use which. Eg. Which astronauts have landed on the moon?

'How' can combine with adjectives and adverbs.

How many (countables), How much (uncountables), How tall (height), How old (age), How big (size), How fast (speed), How often (frequency), How many times (number), How long (duration), How far (distance)

Prepositions often come at the end of a question.

Eg. What are you looking at? Which channel is the film on?

What are you afraid of? What schools did you go to?

Who did you dance with? What is it about?

Who did you give it to? Who was it written by?

Who is he getting married to? What did you do that for?

How long did you stay for? Who did you get that from?

Short reply questions with prepositions are also possible in English.

Eg. What with? What about? What for? Who to? Who from? Where to?

QUESTIONS I YES/NO QUESTIONS

'Yes/No' questions ask for a positive or negative answer.
They normally start with an AUXILIARY or MODAL verb and are followed by

SUBJECT + (VERB) + OBJECT

'Yes/no' questions normally have a RISING INTONATION.

Tense
Verb
Answer
Present simple Am I right? Do I do it like this? Yes, you do.
Present continuous Is it working? Yes, it is.
Past simple Was she the manager? Did you enjoy it? Yes, I did.
Past continuous Were they fighting? No, they weren't.
Pres. perf. simple Have they had dinner yet? No, they haven't.
Pres. perf. continuous Has she been working all day? Yes, she has.
Passive Was it finished on time? No, it wasn't
will / would Will she be happy in her new job? Will you finish by 5.30? Yes, of course I will.
Can / could Could he be right? Can you pass me the salt, please? Yes, here you are.

Negative 'Yes/No' questions are used:

To show surprise: Didn't you hear the bell? I rang it four times!

In exclamations: Doesn't that dress look nice! (= That dress looks very nice)

When we expect the listener to agree with us: Haven't we met somewhere before? (= I think that we have)

Be careful with the answers to negative questions: Didn't Dave go to Canada? Yes. (He went there.)
                                                                                                                              No. (He didn't go there.)

BASIC QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS TO START WITH

Personal Information

What's your name?
Peter.

Where are you from? / Where do you come from?
I'm from ... I come from ...

What's your surname / family name?
Smith.

What's your first name?
Tom.

What's your address?
7865 NW Sweet Street

Where do you live?
I live in San Diego.

What's your (tele)phone number?
209-786-9845

How old are you?
Twenty-five. I'm twenty-five years old.

When / Where were you born?
I was born in 1961 / Seattle.

Are you married? / What's your marital status?
I'm single.

What do you do? / What's your job?
I'm a librarian.

Have you got a car / job / house / etc.?
Yes, I've got a good job.

Have you got any children / friends / books / etc.?
Yes, I've got three children - two boys and a daughter.

Can you play tennis / golf / football / etc.?
Yes, I can play golf.

Can you speak English / French / Japanese / etc.?
No, I can't speak Japanese.

Introducing Yourself / Saying Hello

How do you do?
How do you do. Pleased/Nice to meet you.
How are you?
Fine, thanks. And you?

Shopping

Can I help you? / May I help you?
Yes. I'm looking for a sweater.

Can I try it on?
Sure, the changing rooms are over there.

How much does it cost? / How much is it?
It's $45.

How would you like to pay?
By credit card.

Can I pay by credit card / check / debit card?
Certainly. We accept all major cards.

Have you got something bigger / smaller / etc.?
Certainly, we've got a smaller sizes as well.

Asking Something Specific

What's that?
It's a cat!

What time is it?
It's three o'clock.

Can / May I open the window?
Certainly. It's hot in here!

Is there a bank / supermarket / pharmacy / etc. near here?
Yes. There is a bank on the next corner next to the post office.

Where is the nearest bank / supermarket / pharmacy / etc.?
The nearest pharmacy is on Aragon street.

Who wrote / invented / painted / etc. the ...?
Hemingway wrote "The Sun Also Rises".

Is there any water / sugar / rice / etc.?
Yes, there's a lot of sugar left.

Are there any apples / sandwiches / books / etc.?
No, there aren't any apples left.

Is this your / his / her / etc. book / ball / house / etc.?
No, I think it's his ball.

Whose is this / that?
It's Jack's.

Questions with 'Like'

What do you like?
I like playing tennis, reading and listening to music.

What does he look like?
He's tall and slim.

What would you like?
I'd like a steak and chips.

What is it like?
It's an interesting country.

What's the weather like?
It's raining at the moment.

Would you like some coffee / tea / food?
Yes, thank you. I'd like some coffee.

Would you like something to drink / eat?
Thank you. Could I have a cup of tea?

Asking for an Opinion

What's it about?
It's about a young boy who encounters adventures.

What do you think about your job / that book / Tim / etc.?
I thought the book was very interesting.

How big / far / difficult / easy is it?
The test was very difficult!

How big / far / difficult / easy are they?
The questions were very easy.

How was it?
It was very interesting.

What are you going to do tomorrow / this evening / next week / etc.?
I'm going to visit some friends next weekend.

Suggestions

What shall we do this evening?
Let's go see a film.

Why don't we go out / play tennis / visit friends / etc. this evening?
Yes, that sounds like a good idea.

SO OR NEITHER? EXPRESSING AGREEMENT OR DISAGREEMENT

So / Neither ?

To agree with a POSITIVE statement:
We use SO + auxiliary/modal verb + pronoun:


'I like tea without sugar.'
'So do I.'


To agree with a NEGATIVE statement:
We use nor/neither + auxiliary/modal verb + pronoun:


'I don't like tea with sugar.'
'Nor do I.' or 'Neither do I.'


To disagree with a POSITIVE statement:
We use pronoun + auxiliary/modal verb + not (-n't):


'I like tea without sugar.'
'I don't.'


To disagree with a NEGATIVE statement:
We use pronoun + auxiliary/modal verb:


'I don't like tea with sugar.'
'I do'.


Go to this link and practise it! http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-75669.php


A communicative activity to do in pairs:

The perfect date
You go on date with someone you met on Tinder. First, complete the following sentences about yourself, and then read them to your date. You discover that you are a match made in heaven!
Student 1:
I’ve always dreamt of_____________________
I’m crazy about_______________________
I can’t bear____________________________
I’m petrified of ___________________________
I will never forget___________________________
I really should _____________________________
Tomorrow I have to_________________________
When I was I child I used to_______________________
When I was little I couldn’t________________________
I’ve been ___verb-ing ________________ for___________________.
My ex was a_______________________
My sister ________________________________
Student 2:
I will always remember________________________
If I wasn’t so ___________________, I would_________________
I must remember to_______________________
I can’t_____________________________
My grandparents__________________________
I should_____________________________
I’d love to________________________
When I was a student I used to_________________________
If I could go back in time, I would______________________
Before last week I had never___________________________
I couldn’t live without ___________________________
I’m a huge fan of__________________________
Disagreeing – A date from hell
If we disagree or don’t share the same taste or opinion as the person we can talk to we can simply repeat the auxiliary verb in affirmative/negative:
A: I love Woody Allen films. B: I don’t.
A: I wouldn’t like to try sky-diving. B: I would. – Repeat the date role play but disagree with everything!

Tuesday, 5 July 2011

ADVERBS III

Adverbs: Types and Positions (Los adverbios: Tipos y posiciones)

Hay varios tipos de adverbios que responden a las preguntas tales como: ¿cuándo?, ¿dónde?, ¿en qué medida?, ¿cómo? y ¿con qué frequencia? La posición del adverbio en la oración depende del tipo.

Types of Adverbs (Tipos de adverbios)

  1. Adverbios de tiempo: Responden a la pregunta de "¿cuándo?"
  2. today, tomorrow, last week, next month, already, eventually, still, soon, yet, now, later...
    Posición: Los adverbios de tiempo normalmente van al principio o al final de la oración.
    • Ejemplos:
    • We went to Paris last year. (Fuimos a París el año pasado.)
    • I have already finished my homework. (Ya he acabado los deberes.)
    • See you later! (¡Hasta luego!)
    • Nota: "Yet" siempre va al final de la oración y "still" va adelante del verbo, excepto con "to be," cuando va detrás del verbo.
    • I haven't finished yet. (No he acabado todavía.)
    • He still needs to finish his homework. (Todavía necesita acabar los deberes.)
    • I am still waiting. (Todavía estoy esperando.)
  3. Adverbios de lugar: Responden a la pregunta de "¿dónde?"
  4. here, there, everywhere, nowhere...
    Posición: En general, los adverbios de lugar van después del objeto o del verbo.
    • Ejemplos:
    • Después del objeto
    • Is she here? (¿Está aquí?)
    • Después del verbo
    • I have searched everywhere but I can't find my keys. (He buscado por todos partes pero no puedo encontrar mis llaves.)
  5. Adverbios de grado: Responden a la pregunta de "¿en qué medida?"
  6. very, really, almost, hardly, quite, barely...
    Posición: Los adverbios de grado van delante de la palabra a la que modifican.
    • Ejemplos:
    • He was almost late for the meeting. (Casi llegó tarde a la reunión.)
    • We are very busy this week. (Estamos muy ocupados esta semana.)
    • I really hope she passes the exam. (Realmente espero que pase el examen.)
  7. Adverbios de modo: Responden a la pregunta de "¿cómo?"
  8. loudly, carefully, softly, beautifully, fast, hard...
    Posición: Los adverbios de modo van detrás del objeto directo. Si no hay un objeto, van detrás del verbo.
    • Ejemplos:
    • Detrás del objeto
    • You speak English perfectly. (Hablas inglés perfectamente.)
    • She read the book quickly. (Leyó el libro rápidamente.)
    • Detrás del verbo
    • Please drive carefully. (Por favor, conduce con cuidado.)
    • He runs fast. (Corre rápidamente.)
  9. Adverbios de frecuencia: Responden a la preguntas de "¿con qué frecuencia?" o "¿cuántas veces?"
  10. sometimes, frequently, usually, seldom, often, never...
    Posición: Los adverbios de frecuencia van delante del verbo, pero van detrás del verbo "to be."
    • Ejemplos:
    • They are frequently late. (Frecuentemente llegan tarde.)
    • She usually wears black. (Normalmente lleva ropa negra.)
    • We never eat in restaurants. (Nunca comemos en restaurantes.)
WARNING!
Los adverbios nunca van entre el verbo y el objeto.
  • Ejemplos:
  • You speak English perfectly.
  • You speak perfectly English

A LIST OF SOME COMMON PHRASAL VERBS

Phrasal Verb List

A continuación, tenemos una lista de los verbos frasales más comunes.
Verbo frasalEspañolEjemplo
add upsumar
The waiter added up the bill.
ask (someone) out invitar a salir

Steve asked me out last night.
back offretirarse

I would back off if I were you, I don't think she likes you.
back (someone) upapoyar, respaldar

You were with me, you can back me up, right?
back up (something)hacer un copia

Don't forget to back up all of your files.
break down (something)dejar de trabajar, estropearse, averiarse

Our car broke down while we were driving to the supermarket.
break down (someone)venirse abajo

It was the most stressful week. By Friday I broke down and cried.
break (something) downderribar

We had to break down the stage to prepare for the next event.
blow upexplotar

They blew up a building, but luckily nobody was hurt.
break intoforzando la entrada para robar

Someone broke into my apartment while I was on holidays.
break upsepararse, romperseI can't believe it, Dan broke up with me last night!
bring (somebody) upcriar y educarI was brought up by my grandmother.
bring (something) upsacar, mencionar

I hate him. Don't ever bring his name up again!
call backvolver a llamar

He was busy when I called, but he said he would call me back tonight.
call off suspender, cancelar

Did you hear? Brenda called off the wedding!
call onpreguntar

The teacher called on me in class to answer the question.
calm downtranquilizarse, calmarse

Calm down, everything is going to be ok.
carry onseguir haciendo algo

Carry on! You are doing very well.
carry on

She must have loved Spain, she was carrying on about it for days after she returned.
catch upponerse al día

Call me, we need to catch up!
check inregistrarse (en)

What time can we check in to the hotel?
check outpagar y marcharse

They checked out on monday.
check outquedarse con, mirar

He's checking you out! / Let's check out that new bar.
check uphacer averiguaciones

I know you have been sick, so I was calling to check up on you.
cheer upanimar(se) a alguien

Sarah is depressed; we have to cheer her up.
close downcerrar o terminar una actividad

The factory was closed down last month.
come backregresar, volver

We are coming back next week.
come bypasarse por

Come by my office and we can talk.
come down withenfermarse

My son came down with the flu last week.
come fromoriginarse

His love of music comes from his father.
count oncontar con

Don't worry, you can count on me!
cut back onbajar

With the crisis we have had to cut back on expenses.
cut offinterrumpirI don't mean to cut you off, but I have to go now.
cut outparar de hacer algo

Cut it out! Leave your sister alone.
drop by/inpasarI was just dropping by/in to say "hi".
drop offllevar a, dejar

She dropped off the kids at school before going to work.
drop outabandonar

He dropped out of school because he was failing all his classes.
end upacabar + infinitivo

There was no food at home so we ended up going out.
fall apart (something)deshacerse

The sweater fell apart after so many washings.
fall apart (someone)derrumbarse

She fell apart when she heard the news.
fall behindquedarse atrás

Hurry up or you will fall behind.
fall outcaerseI think my wallet fell out of my purse.
fight backdefenderse

If you don't fight back, they will never stop bullying you.
figure outdeterminarI can't figure out why this isn't working.
fill in/outrellenar

You must fill in/out the forms completely.
fill upllenarseI need to stop at the gas station and fill up the gas tank.
find outenterrarse

If the teacher doesn't know the answer, she will find it out.
fit inencajar, integrarse

Despite her efforts, she never fit in with the other kids.
get acrosscomunicar una idea

He tried everything to get his ideas across, but his boss didn't understand.
get along/onllevarse

I'm so lucky, my father and my husband get along/on really well.
get arounddesplazarse, circular

News really gets around fast!
get awaycogerse un descanso/vacaciones

Work has been so stressful, I need to get away!
get away withsalir impune

She stole my idea, but she won't get away with it.
get backregresar, volver

They get back from vacation on Thursday.
get (something) backdevolverI have to get these books back to the library today.
get back atvengarse de

I'll get back at her for stealing my idea!
get bysobrevivir

We don't have a lot of money right now, but we'll get by.
get onsubir

He got on the bus for the airport.
get onseguir

My husband and I have separated, but I must get on with my life.
get out ofirse, salir, marcharse

It's too smoky in here, I have to get out of here.
get overrecuperarse

I'm so upset, I can't get over failing my test.
get throughsuperar

I'm never going to get through this book with all of these distractions!
get togetherquedar, reunir

We are getting together for dinner tomorrow at 8.
get uplevantarse

What time did you get up this morning?
give awayregalar

The millionaire gave away all his money just before he died.
give backdevolver

Can you give me back my book when you have finished reading it?
give in/upceder, rendirse

Be strong! Don't give in to temptation
give outrepartir, distribuir

They are giving out free samples at the store.
give uprendirse, abandonar

Ok, I give up. What's the answer?
go aheadir delante

Go ahead, I'll meet you there.
go backregresar, volver

I'm so embarassed. I can never go back to that restaurant.
go outsalir

Let's go out for a drink.
go out with (someone)salir conII hear Michael is going out with Jane.
go overrepasarBefore you submit your thesis, I think we should go over it together.
go throughpasar por

You need to go through the Lincoln Tunnel to get to New Jersey.
go throughsufrir, suportar

I can't believe what you have been through.
grow upcrecer, llegar a hacerse adulto

Alex grew up in France but now he lives in Italy.
hand inpresentarAll homework must be handed in by the end of the day.
hand outrepartirThe teacher will hand out the assignments this afternoon.
hang onesperar

Hang on, I'm coming.
hang outPasar tiempo con

Her favorite thing to do is hang out with her friends.
hang upcolgar el teléfonoI was so angry I hung up on him.
hit onflirtear, coquetear con

Look at how that guy is hitting on Debbie.
hold back contenerse

She tried, but she couldn't hold back the tears any longer.
hold onesperar

Hold on, I'm coming.
hurry updarse prisa

Hurry up or we will be late.
keep onseguir

She kept on asking me the same questions.
lay (somebody) offdespedir

With the crises, we have been forced to lay off some staff.
let (somebody) downdefraudar, decepcionarI don't want to let you down, but I don't think I can come with you to the party tomorrow.
look forward totener ganas de

We are really looking forward to your visit!
look outprestar atención, tener cuidado

Look out! That car almost hit you!
look upbuscar, consultar

You will need to look up some words in the dictionary.
look up to (somebody)admirar a alguien

She's so brave, I have always looked up to her.
make (something) upinventar algo

I don't believe you. You're making that up!
make up (somebody)reconciliarse

Our parents had an argument last night, but they made up this morning.
pick on (somebody)fastidiar, burlar

When I was young, my brother always picked on me.
put (something) offposponer, atrasar

You must not want to do it, you keep putting it off.
rely on contar con, confiar en

I hope I can rely on you to be discreet.
slow downreducir la velocidad

Slow down please, you are driving too fast!
speak uphablar alto, subir la voz

Can you please speak up, I can't understand you.
take after (somebody)parecerse

With that bad temper, he must take after his father.
take oversustituir, hacerse con el control

If you are tired of driving, I can take over for a while.
take offdespegar

The plane will take off in 5 minutes.
take upocupar, empezar una afición

He has taken up tennis in his free time.
tell (somebody) offechar la bronca, regañar

She told him off after he was late again.
throw outechar

They should throw that guy out, he's really drunk.

PHRASAL AND PREPOSITIONAL VERBS I

Phrasal and Prepositional Verbs (Verbos preposicionales y verbos frasales)

En inglés hay muchos verbos que constan de dos partes: el verbo y una preposición o partícula adverbial.
La diferencia entre una preposición y una partícula adverbial es que la preposición está unida a un sustantivo o pronombre y una partícula adverbial forma parte y depende sólo del verbo. Veamos la diferencia con el ejemplo "live down" que puede actuar como verbo preposicional y también como verbo adverbial.
  • Preposicional:
  • He lives down the street. (Vive abajo de la calle.)
  • Adverbial:
  • I couldn't live down that incident. (No podía conseguir olvidar ese accidente.)
Los verbos compuestos pueden ser transitivos o intransitivos, según lleven o no un complemento de objeto directo en forma de sintagma nominal. De ello dependerá el orden de la frase.

Por ejemplo, el verbo "give" significa "dar", pero cuando añadamos la preposición "up", el significado cambiará: "Give up" significa "abandonar" o "rendirse". Por lo tanto, "give" y "give up" son dos verbos distintos.

LOS ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS

Adjetivos Posesivos
En el idioma inglés, los adjetivos posesivos se utilizan para hacer referencia al poseedor de un determinado objeto y son usados con mucha frecuencia, más que en el idioma español. En general preceden a los sustantivos como objetos personales, partes del cuerpo, parentesco, vestimenta. Los adjetivos posesivos y su significado son los siguientes:












ADJETIVO POSESIVO





SIGNIFICADO





MY





Mío / mía / míos / mías





YOUR





Tuyo / tuya / tuyos / tuyas





HIS





Suyo / suya / suyos / suyas
(de él)





HER





Suyo / suya / suyos / suyas
(de ella)





ITS





Suyo / suya / suyos / suyas
(de animal u objeto)





OUR





Nuestro / nuestra
nuestros / nuestras





YOUR





Su / sus
(de ustedes)





THEIR





Suyo / suya / suyos / suyas
( de ellos / ellas)

Observa que la forma ITS se emplea cuando el poseedor es un animal u objeto, aunque muchas veces se hace una excepción cuando existe afecto hacia el animal, en este caso se puede utilizar HIS o HER dependiendo del género, por ejemplo:

That is its house. Aquella es su casa.
(Hace referencia a la casa del perro)
That is his house. Aquella es su casa.
(Hace referencia a la casa del perro si es macho)
That is her house. Aquella es su casa.
(Hace referencia a la casa de la perra)

Los adjetivos posesivos en inglés varían según el poseedor (1ª, 2ª o 3ª persona del singular o plural), pero a diferencia del español, no concuerdan en número con el objeto poseído:

This is my brother. Este es mi hermano.
This is my daughter. Esta es mi hija.
They are my brothers. Ellos son mis hermanos.
They are my sisters. Ellas son mis hermanas.

Aquí vemos algunos ejemplos:
I forgot my books at home. Yo me olvidé mis libros en casa.
He broke his watch yesterday. Él rompió su reloj ayer.
We will sell our car. Venderemos nuestro coche.
Those are their pictures. Aquellos son sus cuadros.
She is wearing her new dress. Ella está llevando su vestido nuevo.