Saturday, 14 November 2015

SIGNAL WORDS AND VERB TENSES






A complete chart:

 PastPresentFuture
SimpleSimple PastSimple PresentSimple Future
 yesterday
last year/ month/ etc.
before
for five weeks/days/etc.
one year/ month ago
every morning / day / etc.
always
usually
frequently
sometimes
tomorrow
tonight
next week/month/etc.
soon
in the future
ProgressivePast ProgressivePresent ProgressiveFuture progressive
 while
when
now
right now
this week/minute/etc.
when
after
as soon as
before
PerfectPast PerfectPresent PerfectFuture Perfect
 before
already
by the time
until then/last week/etc.
after
until now
since
ever
never
many times/ weeks/years/etc.
for three hours/ minutes/etc/
by the time you go (somewhere)
by the time you do (something)
already 
Perfect ProgressivePast Perfect progressivePresent Perfect ProgressiveFuture Perfect Progressive
 before
for one week/hour/etc.
since
for the past year/ month/ etc.
for the last 2 months/ weeks/etc.
up to now
for 6 weeks/hours/etc.
since
by the time
for ten days/weeks/etc.
by


A brief summary of all of the verb tenses:


PRESENT TENSES:

Simple present
(a fact or habit; with time clauses when time is future);
He studies grammar every day.
We will eat after he gets here.
Key words: always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never, every day, on Sundays, etc.
also stative (non-progressive) verbs: know, understand, believe, feel, think,** remember, forget, want,
need, prefer, mean, love, like, hate, have,** hear, feel,** see,** smell,** taste,** seem, look,** cost, owe, be**
**These verbs also have other meanings which can be progressive

Present continuous
(an activity in progress at the present time--probably started in the past and will continue)
I can't talk on the phone. I am eating lunch.
Key words: now, right now, this quarter, etc.

Note: the Present progressive and simple present can also be used for a future meaning with scheduled events.
I am meeting her in the library tomorrow at 10 am.
The plane leaves at 6 p.m.

PAST TENSES:

Simple past
(at one time in the past, this happened; activity completed in the past)
I ate dinner yesterday.
Key words: yesterday, last week, last month, this morning (when meaning is past), etc.

Past continuous
(an activity in progress at a particular time in the past)
I was eating when you called.
Key words: while


Present perfect
(something that started in the past and has relevance to or continues to the present;
activity in past, but no time is mentioned; emphasis on repetition of activity in the past)
I have eaten Indian food two times.
I have had this rucksack for five years.
I have been here since 8 a.m.
Key words: already, yet, just, ever, never, ___ times, since + a particular time, for + a duration of time

Present perfect continuous
(duration of an activity that was in progress before now)
I have been eating since four o'clock.)
I have been eating a lot of vegetables lately.
Key words: for, since, lately

Past perfect
(an activity which was completed before another activity in the past)
I had already eaten when they arrived.
Key words: already, before. by the time

Past perfect continuous
(an activity in progress before another activity in the past)
I had been eating for two hours before my friend arrived.
Key words: for, since


FUTURE TENSES:

Simple future (will)
(activity that will happen in the future)
will: used for prediction & willingness
I will study after I finish eating.
The phone is ringing. I’ll answer it.
Key words: tomorrow, next week, next month, etc.


Future (be going to)
(activity that will happen in the future)
be going to: used for prediction and prior plan
I am going to study from six to nine.
Key words: tomorrow, next week, next month, etc.


Future continuous
(activity which will be in progress at a particular time in the future)
She will be studying when we arrive.
I’ll be staying with my cousin for several weeks.
Key words: for, for ages, for a long time...

Future perfect
(an activity which will be finished before another time or activity in the future)
I will have finished studying by the time you arrive.)
Key words: when, by the time, by then, by this time next...,

Future perfect continuous
(activity in progress in the future before another activity in the future)
I will have been studying for two hours by the time my parents come.)

Key words: for, by the time

BLACK FRIDAY: AN EFL LESSON PLAN

 CONSUMERISM

Black Friday  "is the Friday following Thanksgiving Day in the United States (the fourth Thursday of November), often regarded as the beginning of the Christmas shopping season." 

Cartoon by Cameron Cardow


- Initial questions to introduce the topic:

Do you…………...?
a. buy discounted goods b. return goods c. do online shopping d. have a budget when you go shopping e. like waiting in line f. bargain g. like window shopping h. try on clothes i. use a shopping cart j. go shopping alone



- Watch a video so that students can understand the craziness of Black Friday HERE (2 min)

- Answer the poll on shopping HERE Students can also ask and answer the questions in pairs.


Cyber Monday: Cyber Monday is a marketing term for the Monday after Thanksgiving in the United States. The term "Cyber Monday" was created by marketing companies to persuade people to shop online.


RECOMMENDED ESL LINKS AROUND THE TOPIC CONSUMERISM:

ESL Discussions: Discussion questions on "Consumerism"
ITESLJ: Conversation questions on money and shopping
ESL Library: ESL Podcast: How Much Stuff Do We Need?
Breaking News English: Men Suffer from Shopping Too! - reading and activities
YouTube: The Story of Stuff 
Teaching English: Consumer - Society Lesson Plan
ESL Right Now: Consumerism-supermarket-psychology lesson plan
ESL Ect: Reading activities on Black Friday and Consumption
ESL Video: 10 minute documentary on consumerism
ESL Holiday Lessons: Reading and activities on Buy Nothing Day
ESL Lab: Short video with 3 questions on Black Friday
YouTube: What is Black Friday All About! Watch and discuss
ESL Fast: Black Friday reading with follow up activities
English Blog: Reuters Video on Cyber Monday with full script
English Post: Reading on Black Friday and Cyber Monday with questions
Daily Infographic: Learn all about Cyber Monday - get your students to write summary sentences


Other interesting resources:

You can listen and read different dialogues at a shop HERE


Really good activities on being smart when shopping (for advanced students) HERE

The smart teen shoppers quiz HERE

THANKSGIVING ACTIVITIES FOR THE EFL CLASS

Thanksgiving Day is the fourth Thursday in November. It is a federal holiday in the US, so schools, banks, post offices, and government offices are closed. Thanksgiving was the first holiday celebrated in America. It was first celebrated in the autumn of 1621 when the Wampanoag Indians and the pilgrims got together for a three-day feast and festival of fun. Today, families celebrate Thanksgiving by eating turkey, stuffing, mashed potatoes and gravy, yams, corn, cranberry sauce, and pumpkin pie. Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade and an NFL football game are special Thanksgiving Day events.


Pilgrims


What is Thanksgiving?
  • It is a federal holiday that is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November.
  • The first Thanksgiving was in 1621 when the pilgrims invited the Indians to a three-day feast to celebrate the autumn harvest.
Who were the pilgrims?
  • The pilgrims were a small group of people who sailed to North America in order to start a new life.
  • They sailed on the Mayflower ship and landed on Plymouth Rock.
  • They wanted religious freedom.

The following activities are intended to cover at least a complete lesson:

- The journey on the Mayflower: Watch and listen HERE

- The first Thanksgiving: Watch and listen HERE 



If you don't have much time to talk about Thanksgiving you can do the following one:

- Listen and read about Thanksgiving. Fill in the gaps. HERE
                                                              Comprehension check HERE

Recipes

Thanksgiving Recipes for KidsKids can help mom, dad, brother, or sister make sweet potato pie, marshmallow pilgrim hats, and turkey cookies.

Pass the Dessert: America's Thanksgiving Recipes Find seven recipes for old fashioned Thanksgiving desserts and listen to an audio clip as the some of the finished recipes are tasted and rated.

Online Quizzes

Turkey Trivia Quiz
Answer 20 questions on the turkey and have your quiz graded.

Thanksgiving QuizTake and grade these 10 question quizzes.

Thanksgiving TriviaTest your Thanksgiving savvy with this 80 question trivia test.


Thursday, 12 November 2015

CONSEJOS PARA HACER UN BUEN EXAMEN DE INGLÉS EN SELECTIVIDAD

Consejos de carácter general:

- Antes que nada, lee con atención las instrucciones contenidas en la parte superior de la hoja del examen. Por ejemplo, contestar en inglés, escribir el número de cada pregunta antes de cada respuesta, etc.

- Lee con detenimiento todo el texto, tratando de extraer la idea general del mismo. Se pueden ir señalando palabras que no se entienden y procurar darles un sentido lógico con arreglo al contexto donde aparecen.

- No tienes por qué seguir el orden en que te dan las preguntas de todo el examen. Es aconsejable que empieces por lo que mejor se te da o por lo que te resulta familiar y en lo que te sientes más seguro. Trabaja por bloques (Use of English / Comprehension, …) No mezcles respuestas de diferentes bloques o apartados. Siempre indica el número de la pregunta a la que respondes (suele ocurrir que se olvida).

- Planifica bien el tiempo de que dispones para el examen. Calcula el tiempo que puedes dedicar a cada tarea y apartado. Te sugiero una posible distribución:

- 10 minutos a la lectura del texto
- 20 minutos para las preguntas de comprensión
- 20 minutos para el apartado de Use of English
- 30 minutos para el apartado de redacción (10 min. para escribir ideas y estructurar el tema y 20 min. para escribir la redacción)
- 10 minutos para pasar a limpio la redacción sin tachar y con signos de puntuación

- Escribe con letra clara y legible. Lo que para ti es obvio y crees que se te entiende puede no serlo para quien luego corrige el ejercicio. No amontones las letras, ni los renglones.

- Separa por párrafos las diferentes ideas uniéndolas con conectores que vengan bien.

- No hagas tachones. Si tuvieras que tachar algo, simplemente traza una línea y ponlo luego entre paréntesis (ej.: esto está tachado).

- Un examen lleno de tachones indica varias cosas de quien lo ha realizado: - inseguridad - mala organización mental - mal método de trabajo - poca limpieza

- Antes de escribir, piensa bien lo que vas a poner. Organiza bien las ideas.

- Utiliza los signos de puntuación adecuados. No abuses de las comas. Conoces los signos de puntuación, así que tienes que usarlos correctamente.

- Subraya aquellas palabras que al leer el texto no has entendido y trata de deducir su significado por medio del contexto en que aparecen. Considera los prefijos o sufijos que formen parte de las palabras y mira si conoces la raíz de la misma. Usa tu capacidad de deducción, así como tu intuición. Te pueden ayudar. Ej: “His successors enlarged the palace” ¿A qué categoría gramatical pertenece? ¿Te suena el adjetivo “large”? ¿Si es un verbo, en qué tiempo está? (= agrandar)

- Ten cuidado con los falsos amigos y las traducciones “fáciles” que te pueden conducir a ideas erróneas. Ej: realize (=darse cuenta de), actually (=de hecho), library (=biblioteca), support (=apoyar), large (=grande), resignation (=dimisión), collar (=cuello de camisa), curator (=conservador en un museo), diversion (=desviación), sensible (=sensato),…


 A) COMPREHENSION

“Answer in your own words” Es decir, te piden que utilices tus propias palabras, así que, del texto puedes coger ideas pero debes utilizar tus propias palabras. Si copias palabras del texto, pierdes puntos.

- Por lo tanto, no copies literalmente del texto. Responde a las preguntas con tus propias palabras. Evidentemente la información la encontrarás en el texto que te han dado. Extrae la idea principal y desarróllala de forma personal en inglés.

 - No seas excesivamente escueto en tus respuestas. La persona que te corrige quiere comprobar si sabes expresarte con fluidez en inglés.


“Are these statements true or false?” Justify your answer with words or phrases from the text.

- En este apartado no basta con indicar si la afirmación es verdadera o falsa. Tienes que demostrar por qué es así reproduciendo, entre comillas, la parte del texto en la que se incluye dicha información. Ojo! No basta poner "Line....", ni frases inacabadas haciendo uso de los puntos suspensivos "xxx......". Debes contestar algo así:

True. As the text states, "...."
False. The author says: "...."
True. As read in line...., "......"
False, as we can see in line....: "...."

B) USE OF ENGLISH

En primer lugar, deberás contestar preguntas relacionadas con el léxico y que probablemente tendrán alguno de los siguientes formatos:

1.- Find in the text one synonym / opposite for... (encontrar sinónimo/antónimo en el texto). Ojo! Los verbos hay que ponerlos en infinitivo, aunque en el texto estén conjugados.

2.- Give one synonym / opposite for ... (debes proporcionar un sinónimo/antónimo que no tiene que estar necesariamente en el texto)

3.- Find in the text the word which has the following definition ... (debes encontrar en el texto una palabra que tenga el significado que te dan)

4.- Find in the text one word / expresion meaning ... (debes encontrar en el texto una palabra o expression que signifique eso)

5.- Which word is not a verb/noun/adjective/preposition or does not have the same meaning? Or … has a different sound? (debes descubrir dentro de un grupo de palabras la que no sea verbo/nombre/adjetivo/preposición, o la que no sea sinónimo de las demás o la que tenga un sonido diferente)

6.- Complete the series with another word of the same semantic group (debes completar la serie de palabras con otra que pertenezca al mismo grupo semántico)

7.- Give an adjective/noun/verb/adverb with the same root as....... (debes escribir un adjetivo/nombre/verbo/adverbio que tenga la misma raíz que la palabra que te dan)

Pregunta de fonética: Has de marcar la palabra que suena diferente a las otras 3. Ejemplos para practicar:

Vocales y diftongos: 1AQUÍ 2AQUÍ 3AQUÍ 4AQUÍ 5AQUÍ 6AQUÍ 7AQUÍ 8AQUÍ 9

/s, z, ʃ, ʒ ,tʃ and dʒ   RULES 1 RULES 2
                 Exercises:  1AQUÍ

Consonantes: 1AQUÍ

Final -ed:  RULES
Exercises:  
      2    3    4
           
En nuestra entrada "More pronunciation exercises for the PAU exam" encontraréis unos ejercicios más.

A continuación deberás contestar preguntas de gramática  y que probablemente tendrán alguno de los siguientes formatos:

1.- Turn the following sentence into the passive/active voice, reported/direct speech (cambia la oración siguiente a pasiva/activa, estilo indirecto/directo)

2.- Join the following sentences using an appropriate linker (do not use AND or BUT) Make changes if necessary. (Une las oraciones siguientes con un conector adecuado, sin usar AND o BUT y haciendo los cambios que sean necesarios)

3.- Join the following sentences using a relative pronoun. Make changes if necessary. (Une las siguientes oraciones con un pronombre de relativo haciendo los cambios necesarios)

4.- Fill in the gaps with a correct noun/verb/tense/adjective/preposition (Rellena los huecos con un nombre/verbo/tiempo verbal/adjetivo/preposición correcto)

5.- Rewrite the sentence without changing its meaning. Begin as indicated. (Reescribe la oración sin cambiar su significado. Comienza según se indica)

6.- Complete the following sentence (Completa la siguiente oración)

7.- Use the words in the box to make a meaningful sentence. (Utiliza las palabras del recuadro para construir una oración con sentido)

8.- Give a question for the underlined words. (Escribe una pregunta cuya respuesta sea las palabras subrayadas)


Son puntos gramaticales que hemos visto  antes en Bachillerato y los más repetidos son: oraciones de relativo, voz activa y pasiva, subordinadas, estilo directo/indirecto, oraciones condicionales, uso de los verbos modales, verbos seguidos de infinitivo con o sin “to” o de gerundio, poner los verbos entre paréntesis en el tiempo correcto, etc.

También suelen aparecer otros puntos gramaticales en los que se piden que hagamos transformaciones:

- so + adj. = such (a) + (adjetivo) + nombre

 He is so stupid= He is such a stupid man

- too + adj. = not + adjetivo + enough

 The tea is too hot to drink= The tea isn’t cold enough to drink

- simple past (con “ago”) = present perfect (con “since” o “for”)

 I came to live here 3 years ago= I have lived here for 3 years

- adjetivos acabados en –ed = adjetivos acabados en –ing

 I don’t like this film; I am bored= I don’t like this film because it's boring

- oración condicional con verbo en negativa = oración condicional con “unless” + afirmativa

If it doesn’t stop raining, I won’t go= Unless it stops raining, I won’t go

- I wish = If only (deseos, lamentaciones)

I wish I had money for a house= If only I had money, I could buy a house

- comparativo = superlativo (o viceversa)

She is the tallest = Nobody is taller than her

- oración con verbo en negativa seguido de “any” y/o sus compuestos = oración con verbo en afirmativa seguido de “no” o sus compuestos.

 I didn’t see anyone= I saw no one/nobody

- I’ve never=   It’s the first time

I’ve never seen a ghost=It’s the first time that I see a ghost

- although, in spite of (+ noun/v–ing/the fact that) = despite (+ noun/v-ing/the fact that)

Although it is cold, I will go out=Despite the cold, I will go out

- when + verbo interrogativo en pasado=   How long + present perfect en interrogativo

When did you come to live here? = How long have you lived here?

- It’s (about) time + pasado simple =sujeto + should + verbo en infinitivo sin “to”

It’s about time you paid me =You should pay me

-  "to have money" en negativo = can’t afford + noun/v-ing

 I haven’t (got) money for a new car =I can’t afford (buying) a new car

- oración en pasado con adverbio de frecuencia=   sujeto + used to + infinitivo

 I always played tennis when I was young = I used to play tennis when I was young

- oración en presente con adverbio de frecuencia = be used to + gerundio

 I often walk in my free time=   I am used to walking

- transformaciones con “I’d rather” (+verb) = “I prefer” (+ gerund),

I’d rather sing than dance = I prefer singing to dancing


C) COMPOSITION

- Trata de darle esta estructura: introducción, cuerpo, conclusión o conclusiones

- Analiza qué tipo de composición te piden: ¿se trata de dar argumentos a favor y/o en contra de una postura? = texto argumentativo, ¿se trata de contar o narrar una historia o experiencia personal? = texto narrativo, ¿se trata de una carta formal/informal?, etc.

- Medita cuál va a ser la idea o ideas que quieres transmitir en tu composición

- Piensa qué estructuras vas a utilizar para transmitir por escrito tu/s idea/s.

- Trata de utilizar un vocabulario rico, no te quedes en palabras “comodín” que valen para todo y expresan poco. “nice, beautiful, big, a thing, an object…” . No uses "slang" ni expresiones coloquiales/informales en la redacción, a no ser que se trate de un diálogo informal.

- Puntúa adecuadamente. No abuses de las comas

- Huye de las oraciones excesivamente largas. Te complican la vida y se cometen errores.

- Enriquece tu composición con una gama variada de conectores que vayas graduando según la parte de la composición en que te encuentres: al principio (Firstly, To begin/start with,..) posteriormente (Secondly, Apart from that,…) o al final (To conclude, To sum up, As a conclusion,…)

- Piensa si quieres contrastar ideas (On the other hand, However, Nevertheless,…) si quieres dar más razones (Since, As, ...because, .....so, Therefore, ,…) o si quieres añadir nuevas razones (Moreover, Furthermore, Besides that, …).

- Procura redactar con mentalidad inglesa. Debes tener muy claro lo que quieres decir, pero evita decirlo “en español”. Acude a tus conocimientos de inglés, aplica la gramática para expresarte en inglés. Plantéate cómo se expresa esta idea en inglés.

- Antes de terminar, revisa lo que has escrito: ¿se entiende lo que deseo expresar? ¿van los adjetivos en la posición adecuada?, ¿concuerdan los tiempos verbales en oraciones que son compuestas?, ¿hay concordancia entre el sujeto y el verbo?, ¿he escrito las “s” de tercera persona del presente simple?, ¿están los elementos de la oración en la posición adecuada?, ¿he puesto los auxiliares en las interrogativas o negativas que lo requieran?, ¿he tenido cuidado con los “falsos amigos”? etc.


Aquí hay algunos exámenes resueltos, de diferentes CCAA:

Andalucía

Madrid

En nuestro post "Preparando las PAU" tenéis muchos exámenes resueltos!


Mucha suerte!

Irregular Verbs Grammar Rap Song


LYRICS to SING ALONG!

The microphone I TAKE (took, TAKen). 
You SHAKE (shook, SHAken). 
WAKE (woke, WOken) to the STYLE I'm creAting. 
THINK (thought, THOUGHT). 
SEEK (sought, SOUGHT).
LISten to the LESson that I TEACH (taught, TAUGHT).

Don't SLEEP (slept, SLEPT).
I CREEP (crept, CREPT). 
I SNEAK (snuck, SNUCK UP). 
You LEAP (leapt, LEAPT).
I KEEP (kept, KEPT) HAVing FUN. 
I'm never BEAT (beat, BEAten); I WIN (won, WON).
DO (did, DONE). BeGIN (began, beGUN).
SHOOT (shot, SHOT)—no, I DON'T own a GUN. 

I LEAD (led, LED) so I can FEED (fed, FED). 
the KNOWledge you NEED, STRAIGHT to your HEAD. 
When I BRING it (I BROUGHT it), you CATCH (you CAUGHT) it.
Sit BACK reLAX. Don't FIGHT (fought, FOUGHT) it.

Please don't FREEZE (froze, FROzen) when I SPEAK (spoke, SPOken). 
It's REAL. You can FEEL I don't STEAL (stole, STOlen). 
I CHOOSE (chose, CHOsen) the VERy best RHYMES and
WRITE (wrote, WRITten) them INto my LINES and
INto your MIND. When we MEET (met, MET)
I'll BET (bet, BET) I won't LET you forGET 
(forGOT, forGOTten). I GET (got, GOTten)
EVery head NODding. Don't THINK about STOPping
just COME (came, COME). 

THIS is hip hop. I don't SING (sang, SUNG).
I STING (stung, STUNG). I CLING (clung, CLUNG).
On EACH and every WORD, you HANG (hung, HUNG).

It´s not enough to DREAM (dreamt, DREAMT);
you've got to SPEND (spent, SPENT)
TIME on your GOALS. Please LEND (lent, LENT) me your
EAR. Come NEAR and Ill LAY (laid, LAID)
DOWN this new SOUND that I MAKE (made, MADE). 
I HOPE you don't SAY that you THINK it's JUNK.
I HOPE you don't THINK that I STINK (stank, STUNK).
If you're THIRSty for ENGlish, come DRINK (drank, DRUNK).
because I SINK (sank, SUNK) ALL compeTItion when they 
HEAR (heard, HEARD) that I GIVE (gave, GIVen)
encouragement when I SPIT (spat, SPAT).
Never QUIT (quit, QUIT); don't SIT (sat, SAT).
Yeah, I LIKE it like THAT. I'll even KNEEL (knelt, KNELT).
and BEG you to exPRESS what you FEEL (felt, FELT).

I RISE (rose, RISen) when I DRIVE (drove, DRIVen) through 
the BEAT; tap your FEET as you RIDE (rode, RIDden). 
Those that HIDE (hid, HIDden) I FIND (found, FOUND).
If you FLEE (fled, FLED) then I'll TRACK you DOWN.

Now you SEE (saw, SEEN) that I MEAN (meant, MEANT) 
every WORD of the MESsage that I SEND (sent, SENT). 
I SHOW (showed, SHOWN) I can FLY (flew, FLOWN).
Now you KNOW (knew, KNOWN) I SHINE (shone, SHONE).
I'll THROW (threw, THROWN) you the BALL. It's your TURN. 
GROW (grew, GROWN) with the VERBS that you've LEARNED. 
GRAMmar through LYRics I DRAW (drew, DRAWN). 
PEACE to elLS, now I GO (went, GONE)!

Thursday, 5 November 2015

REMEMBER, REMEMBER.... THE 5th OF NOVEMBER!


Bonfire Night  

Bonfire Night is a uniquely British event when we celebrate the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot against the King and Parliament in the early 17th Century.

Remember, remember the fifth of November,
Gunpowder, treason and plot,
We see no reason,
Why gunpowder treason,
Should ever be forgot!


Glossary HERE

Primary
A build-your own comic kit based around the gunpowder plot – a set of professionally drawn images that can be rearranged to create comic strips, posters, colouring sheets and much more. Ideal for creating worksheets for students – or even get the kids involved and have them build their own story!
A bonfire night lesson plan and a wide range of activities covering fireworks safety and the gunpowder plot. There are several interactive quizzes and games to get the kids thinking about the origins of Bonfire Night – and about how to stay safe when they’re celebrating!
Secondary
A detailed lesson plan and presentation covering Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot. The presentation would work well as part of a lesson on the history of the plot or as a the basis for a special assembly.

This is a great set of resources, comprising a presentation and activities aimed at getting kids to start thinking critically about the reliability of different sources of information.
Two stunning resources based around an investigation into the Gunpowder Plot, and whether the plotters were framed. Great for getting students really engaged in the topic and encouraging critical thought. 

Fancy cooking with your students? These recipes are very easy to follow!

Post-Secondary
Do the webquest and the worksheet that you'll find HERE
Resources to practise literacy skills:

Sunday, 1 November 2015

LOS 40 ... PHRASAL VERBS

Una persona angloparlante usa phrasal verbs de manera habitual. Tanto si quieres mejorar tus habilidades para la escucha y la comprensión como si quieres hablar el inglés más actual, debes familiarizarte con el significado y uso de los phrasal verbs. 

Aquí tienes una lista de 40 phrasal verbs que pueden marcar la diferencia en tu nivel de inglés.



1. Argue out  →  to argue about a problem to find a solution (debatir)                                            
If we can’t argue our differences out, I’ll have to speak with your parents
2. Be down →  to be depressed (estar deprimido, ‘estar de bajón’)                                                  
Mary’s been down since his brother went to India
3. Be in  →  to be at home or at work (estar en casa o en el trabajo)                                                 
 He is never in, he always sleeps in his girlfriend’s house
4. Belong to  →  to be a member or be connected to a time, place, belief… (ser miembro de o estar conectado a un tiempo, lugar, creencia…)                                                                                  
She belongs to a business club
5. Block in   to park a car obstructing another car (bloquear)                                                       
We couldn’t drive this Saturday because someone had blocked us in.
6. Calm down  → to become less excited and tense (calmarse, tranquilizarse)                             
My boss calmed down the meeting
7. Call off  →  to cancel (cancelar algo)                                                                                                 
The meeting was called off
8. Call back → to return a phonecall (devolver una llamada)                                                                
 I must call the hotel back to confirm the booking
9. Cut down on  → to reduce in size or amount (reducir la cantidad o el consumo de cigarrillos, bebida, producción…)                                                                                                       
Agatha cut down on smoking
10. Find out  → discover (descubrir, averiguar).                                                                                  
The boss would be interested in finding out more details about the sell
11. Get away  → to escape (escapar, huir)                                                                                           
The cat got away when it saw the dog
12. Get over  → to recover from something (superar)                                                                    
Mary has got over her Internet addiction
13. Give out  → to distribute (distribuir algo entre un grupo de personas)                                      
The coach gave out the football balls for the match
14. Go for → to attack (atacar a una persona o animal)                                                                        
The cat went for Peter
15 Lay off  → to stop employing (despedir)                                                                                         
The company laid off two hundred workers last month
16. Look after  → take care (cuidar)                                                                                                     
Her friend Susan looked after the twins while their mother went to the bank
17. Look for → try to find (buscar)                                                                                                              
You should look for another way to finance the business
18. Look forward to  → to think with pleasure about a future event (esperar con interés)  
Jimmy is looking forward to the next summer
19. Look into  → to investigate (investigar)                                                                                         
The police are looking into my company
20. Look over → inspect (revisar, examinar)                                                                                     
They came to look the house over with a view to buying it
21. Make up for → to compensate for (compensar)                                                                       Outsourcing could make up for a lack of human resources
22. Pick up → to collect someone or something (recoger algo o alguien, habitualmente en un vehículo)                                                                                
Peter picked up the dessert from the bakery
23. Put forward → to offer for consideration (ofrecer una propuesta a consideración)              
We put forward the plan in the annual meeting
24. Put off  to delay (posponer hacer algo durante un determinado tiempo)                           
The new manager put off the meeting until the end of the week
25. Put on  to dress (ponerse, vertir ropa o complementos)                                              
Anne put on her new boots
26. Put out  →  to extinguish (apagar un cigarrillo, un fuego, una luz…)                                        
George put out the light (George put the light out) before leaving the room
27. Put through → to connect (conectar una línea telefónica o personas)                                     
He put me through to Mr. Pratt
28. Run into  →  to meet by chance (encontrarse por casualidad)                                                     
 I ran into Mary yesterday night
29. Run out of  →  to use all of (consumir todo)                                                                                 
The car ran out of petrol
30. See off  → to say goodbye (despedir a alguien en el lugar desde donde parte de viaje)       
 Billy drove to the airport and saw him off
31. Set off → to start a journey (empezar un viaje, partir de viaje)                                            
Karen set off at five o’clock
32. Speak up  → to speak louder (hablar más alto)                                                                            
The nun said, ‘speak up’
33. Take after  → to look or be like an a relative (parecerse o comportarse como un familiar o conocido)                                                                                                                                         
My sister takes after my mother
34, Take down  → writing (anotar)                                                                                                          
 He took my telephone number down
35. Take over → to assume responsability for (asumir la responsabilidad)                                       
When my father died, my oldest brother took over his responsibilities
36. Take up  → to begin to study or do something (empezar a estudiar, practicar o hacer algo)
He’s taking up a new university career
37. Tear up  → to destroy completely (destruir totalmente)                                                          
Brian tore up all his mother’s letters
38. Tell off  →  to speak angrily (reprender a alguien)                                                                       
The boss told him off for breaking the agreement
39. Think over  → to consider (valorar una propuesta o situación)                                              
They are thinking over their next sell
40. Try on: to put on an article to see if it fits (probar ropa)                                                             
The boy didn’t want to try on the shoes